Electron generation of leptons and hadrons with reciprocal alpha-quantized lifetimes and masses
Malcolm H. Mac Gregor (e-mail)
Subject: Particle Physics - Phenomenology
Comments: 106 pages, 33 figures, invited review article, postprint
Journal-ref: electronic version of an article published as International Journal of Modern Physics A, Vol. 20, No. 4 (2005) 719-798; doi:10.1142/S0217751X05021117 and addendum International Journal of Modern Physics A, Vol. 20, No. 13 (2005) 2893-2894; doi:10.1142/S0217751X05025000 © copyright World Scientific Publishing Company.
In elementary particle theories the fine structure constant alpha=e^2/(hslash*c) serves as the coupling constant for lepton interactions (QED),
but is assumed to play no role in hadron interactions (QCD).
However, experiments have long indicated an alpha spacing in the lifetimes of the long-lived threshold-state hadrons,
and they also suggest an alpha-related mass structure.
The relevance of alpha to hadron interactions is an experimental question, independent of theory.
In the present paper we first make a detailed analysis of the experimental lifetime data.
This analysis demonstrates that out of 156 particles with well-determined lifetimes tau,
the 120 short excited-state lifetimes tau<10^-21 sec have a continuum of values,
but the 36 long threshold-state lifetimes tau>10^-21 occur in alpha-spaced groups that cleanly sort out the s, c, b quark flavors.
These 36 metastable lifetimes also exhibit a factor-of-three c-to-b "flavor structure"
and a pervasive factor-of-two "hyperfine structure". We then trace out an alpha-defined set of mass quanta
that tie together leptons and hadrons. Mass generation occurs via an initial "alpha-leap" from an electron
pair to a "platform state" M, and then subsequent excitations by a dominant quantum X.
The low-mass "MX octet" of particles--muon, proton, tau, pion, eta, eta', K, phi--is reproduced to an average accuracy of 0.4%,
with no adjustable parameters except a small binding energy for hadronic pairs.
Without the inclusion of lepton masses, the spectrum of hadron masses is difficult to understand.
These reciprocal alpha-quantized results reinforce the reality of the spin 1/2 u, d, s, c, b quarks,
and they also lead to the identification of a closely-related set of spinless mass quanta for the pseudoscalar mesons.
12.40.Yx Hadron mass models and calculations
13.66.Bc Hadron production in e-e+ interactions
13.66.De Lepton production in e-e+ interactions
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original v1: 2005-06-10
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